All posts by Tina

Reading Response 11.16

Recently, cell phone, Internet and even television have been using as a tool for the power of political issue. Therefore, some countries are not available to access to the Web to share news and information online because of increasing political tensions. For example, in the article “Iran Protests, Tech Tools at Work” in Iran, as the government keep blocking most of the website especially social networks, many protesters are trying to find the way to access the site and share information. I know that people have freedom of speech online or public space, but they need to be careful to talk and share about political issue in Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, and so on. The article “Afghanistan’s Amazing DIY Internet” talks about Afganistan’s DIY Internet Brings the Web to War-torn Towns. After I read this article, I was surprised that people who in Afghanistan built their own wireless networks out of found materials called FabFi. I thought because people who live in war torn countries are hard to find and get lots of information with Internet, they really need more fast speed Internet network. Imagine if you will being stuck in a country like Afghanistan where even the most basic amenities (water, food, shelter) are hard to come by. Would the Internet bring any sort of benefit at all? Absolutely. At least, that’s what the guys behind the FabFi project believe. The purpose of FabFi is not to just set it up and go, they’re determined to empower dissidents located in remote places to connect with the rest of the world. I think This MacGyver-like project, FabFi is a very creative system because it provides technical training and computer resources to local Afghanis — but more importantly, it is tasked with helping to build an open, extensible, wireless network in and around Jalalabad.

Reading Response 11.09

Nowadays, we are using internet in many different ways such as social networking, searching information, communicating with many people from other countries, chatting, sharing private/public information, emailing, and so on. I cannot imagine if I don’t use Internet in every single day. Even though people cannot meet person to person, they communicate well through technology. In these kinds of current situations, many people are using Internet as a tool for attack and social protests. For example, in Estonia, the cyber protest became The First Web War. Protesters used a distributed denial of service attack (DDoS) by repeatedly transmitting data to a specific website and difficultly access to it. Although it was not a physical war, the attacks could be a new system to gather people’s voice and thought to protest against some situation.

How is it possible for people to easily protest something through online? On the Internet, sometimes we can access and use it without identification. So, anyone participates and joins with anonymous because on the cyberspace people have much freedom to express their opinion, and they don’t know who we are and where we are. On Internet Relay Chat Channels (IRC channels), people can organize attacks, debate and watch. This kind of method let people connect each other without identification. The positive effect of it is gathering people’s voice, thought, and attacks without physical damage. It’s more too the point than those simply stating that in Anonymous everyone is equal. In practice, there are people who have more influence through activity or skill (organizational, technical, strategic, rhetorical). That gives it direction and focus. At the same time, it’s all in constant flux; people come and go, views and plans and methods evolve, gain and loose support, change, become obsolete by events, and people leading the charge suddenly don’t.

After I read Jill Lane’s “Digital Zapatistas”, I wondered about the performative reach of such electronic disturbances software like FloodNet creates. I understand that in the NYU example, the disturbance would have caused NYU’s entire website to go down. But what about when FloodNet requested nonexistent pages from the Mexican government’s website and got back “404 error-reply” time and time again, saying things like “justice not found on this site”? Perhaps I don’t fully understand what function this performs in terms of website function, etc., but I wonder who exactly is their audience for this? Just the site’s digital memory? If the only audience is a website’s memory, is it performance for the sake of the performers? Moreover, I wonder when the term “illegal” began to carry such a negative connotation. In terms of definition, it is the opposite of being legal. But the same word can describe running through a stop sign and smuggling drugs into a foreign country. I just wonder when the word sort of tip-toed over to the negative end of the spectrum and became a noun used to describe a group widely despised by those who use the word “illegal” in such a way.

Reading Response : The Interventionists / Archive of Socially Engaged Practices from 1991-2011

Reading Response : The Interventionists

Art and designs has been around the globe for many decades. Throughout the history, art and designs had evolved and used in many different fields other than museum. Out of all the fields, field that art that most influence was on politic and cultures. Political art and cultures has been one of the great topic and issues that is still revolved around in today’s society.  There have been various famous art/poster that emphasize the many different social issues. It could have been critics about president, ethical group, political groups, or many other social topics. The article “Trespassing Relevance” by Nato Thompson shows the how the Interventionist used art has impacted the both social and political issue in four steps.  After reading the article, once again I was able to feel the importance of art toward the society.

There are four sections of interventionist, “RTS, Nomads, Ready to wars, and the experimental university.” Out of these four sections, one that captured my attention would be RTS. The reason why “Reclaim the Streets (RTS)” earned my focus is because it persuaded me in the terms of importance of the street. In the section, they emphasized that the street is the space where every people could participate democratically and freely. Interventionists are the people who want to convince and change today’s society and people’s idea. There are tons of people walking around in every part of the streets. In Time Square, it is impossible to count how many people there are even in the morning. By using the political posters or social poster (Which both are art/design) they could make huge impact on people’s idea towards society. This method could be used not only in art but, reading groups, experimental groups, etc.

One of the famous political arts that I could mention is the “I want you” poster. Most of the American must know what this poster is. It has the face of President Lincoln that has been used to recruit the U.S army. The reason I like is because it contains both meaning and power. It uses RTS method since we can find this poster in many public spaces. Art is important aspect that could be used in many fields. It captures people’s attention with its color and design, influences people with its idea and remains in people’s thought with unique design. I think that even in the future, art will always evolve in and will be used to fit into the society.


Archive of Socially Engaged Practices from 1991-2011

This project is very interesting to me and grabs my attention. People think that milk is just a drink for daily nutrition. However, the artist Peggy Diggs made a connection between milk and the domestic violence as his campaign. In my opinion, the use of milk as the medium of the project is an impactive idea because people easily find and get the milk everywhere in the supermarket. So, it has high impact to the campaign. He put image of domestic violence on one side  and the other side he put the emergency call number that whoever has domestic violence problem can call. I think the idea of silhouette hand is very creative in a reason that the image shows the violence directly so that it could actually make people to think about the violence one more time. On the other hand, as he addressed in the article, the women who killed her husband for self defense was imprison. and she said she can only go to supermarket. Therefore, if there are people who has similar situation as the women, those people can by the milk in the supermarket and get the actual help by calling the number on the milk packaging. This project states daily product can save people and at the same time, convey strong message to people.

Reading Response: Boyd&Duncombe

Throughout the history, there are many kinds of diseases and virus that has been around all over the country. These viruses has move from one body to another through various kind of method. Some of these viruses have given great impact in society. In today’s society, there also exists such virus. It is known as “media” and it is very different from the viruses that we have knowledge on. In today’s society, people use these viruses to spread their ideas globally. After reading both articles, “TRUTH IS A VIRUS: Meme Warfare and the Billionaires for Bush (or Gore)” and “A user’s guide to impossible”, I learned few interesting fact and was very impressed with the method of protests. I thought that art and media could be used in not only in visual, but also in different aspects of life.

Both article, “TRUTH IS A VIRUS: Meme Warfare and the Billionaires for Bush (or Gore)” and “A user’s guide to impossible”, was about the group of people protesting using the power of media and art. This gave a great impact on me, because I never realized that these everyday sources of media and designs could be used to manipulate people and help people spread their ideas. For example, in the article, “TRUTH IS A VIRUS: Meme Warfare and the Billionaires for Bush (or Gore)”, author talks about how much attention his group was able to receive by creating design, slogans, posters, and website ( He has stated that they were able to receive few awards and tremendous amount of supporters. Author has also mentioned different types of protest such as Critical Mass bicycle.

Our creativity, imagination, and ideas are the key factors that create the master piece. Without any of these, art/design will only become decent at most. When you think about it, all of these factors are part of your opinion and freedoms that are formed into a work of art. Like I mentioned in the beginning, art and media can be used in any field if it requires creativity, imagination, and freed­­om of ideas.

Reading Response: Steve Duncombe and Andrew Boyd

United States of America is the country of freedom. Our ancestor came here to earn to religious freedom, and has earned our freedom through the enormous amount of effort and sacrifices. It is most important for the people in United States to always have the right in almost every aspect in their life. But, after reading the both article, the first thing came to mind was, “Do we really have the freedoms when it comes to the politic? “

There are many political parties within the United States. Out of those parties, there are two most powerful parties, Democratic and Republican. Both of them are supposed to hold the idea of giving freedom to the country people. They do give us the right and freedom, but only within their scope of righteous. In the article, “Cultural Resistant Reader” by Stephen Duncombe, author talks about cultural rights and political rights. He gives the example of the protest on the public section turning into private section with the power of government and police trying to stop the protest. As soon as I read this, I had thought about the strike at the Zuccotti Park that we had visited. Even though government is mentioning that people have their rights of speech, once they don’t approve it, they use their force to restrict it. Same thing had happened to the protest on Zuccotti Park until there were too much people to handle. This kind of situation makes me think if we really do have freedom.

In the article, “THE MANUFACTURE OF DISSENT: What the Left Can Learn from Las Vegas” by Andrew Boyd, author mentioned and referred our government as spectacle, which is a way of making an argument, through the story, myth, fantasy, desire, and imagination. He also stated that, “Today’s wind is one of spectacle. It may not be of our making. Its origins may not be the pure lands of the Enlightenment but instead the commercial barrens of advertising and entertainment. But use it we must, for without the wind, we are becalmed, stuck, going nowhere.” Even though our current government is different from before, if we do want the freedom and truth from politic, we must adopt and use it to earn our own political freedom.

Response : #Occupying Wall Street

As we went to #Occupywallstreet to visit the strike sight, I was very amazed to see how many people were actually there. There were few hundreds of people who were on a strike to the Wall Street where union people’s pensions and health has disappeared to. There were group of people singing a song to gather people’s attention from the public, some slept at Zuccotti Park, some gathered in group to protest in larger voice as a group, and there were many police watching over the park. It was definitely new and amazing experience for me because I have never paid attention about street protests before. Usually I just hear about some of protests through online or newspapers. And I also usually think why people are involved in street protests. But after I saw people who participated in street protests in Wall Street, I totally changed my mind. I saw how much power and voices people could gather if people unite actively. Police could not stop them, nor the weather or the time. We were there for about two to three hours, but as time went more people were joining the strike. People were doing everything they could to earn their rights back. One lesson that I learned from visiting the part, would be that if you desire something desperately, you should work hard to earn it.

Reading Response : Theater of the Oppressed by Augusto Boal

New York is the one of the most famous city when it comes to theater and musicals. When we think about the theater or plays, the words that would come to our mind would be, Broadway shows, off Broadway shows, musical, etc. People would be blown away just by watching one Broadway show. But even in this fantastic plays, it is very uncommon to have the spectator to be actively involved with the theater work. Audience would simply watch the play and would leave when it is over. In the article, “From the Theater of the oppressed” talks about the theater technique that makes the audience involve with theater work to create the interaction between spectator and actors. I believe that this was a very refreshing and new ways to approach a theater work.

There are varieties of stages to the theater of the oppressed, Stimultaneous dramaturgy, image theatre, forum theatre, newspaper theatre, invisible theatre, etc. All of these stages are most likely to make the audience involve with the actor in different ways. For example, Stimultaneous dramaturgy would be the method in which actors would stop in the middle of the play and ask the audience for the solution. I thought this was very refreshing because, people would guess different outcomes for the play which would share each individual’s thoughts.  Another one I would like to mention would be image theatre. This method was very unique in own way because audience was asked to express the theme of the play without any word. I imagined myself being in the part of image theatre, and it was very hilarious and interesting for me to act out the expression. Last one which I liked the most would be invisible theatre technique. It is the technique where the play would act out in the public, except that no one knows it is a play. People would think differently if they didn’t know that actors were acting all kinds of situation.

One logical and most common rule in theatre would be, being quite during the play time. Of course, it is very interesting to watch the play with the professional actors acting out but, like the article said, it does divide the people in two group; spectator and actor. On the other hand, theatre of oppression involves our society into the play itself. Being unique is the only way to survive in the outgrowing society, and I think this method has possibility to grow into popular ways to create plays.

Reading Response: Code is Speech

As our society grows with emerging technology and software, there are many legal cases that are involved with copyrights, patent, etc. There are tons of software programmers who are being sued for the sharing the source code of the software over the Free and Open Source Software (F/OSS). Before I read this article, “Code is speech: Legal Tinkering, Expertise, and Protest among Free and Open Source Software Developers” by Gabriella Coleman, I’ve always thought that it is wrongful for hackers and other software programmers to remodel, improvise and use the similar skills of other software that has already been developed. But after reading the article, it made me re-think about the situation, that software code could also be another method of express our thought and mind. In the article, F/OSS is stating that software codes are related with the freedom of speech. They gave an example about Schoen’s 456 stanza haiku, “Programmers’ art as that of natural scientists is to be precise, complete in every detail of description, not leaving things to chance. Reader, see how yet technical communicants deserve free speech rights; see how numbers, rules, patterns, languages you don’t yourself speak yet, still should in law be protected from suppression, called valuable speech!” This sentence indicates to us that software code deserve the freedom, since it has natural numbers, rules, patterns, and languages which is considered as a speech. There was also a law case that was mentioned in the article; “Bernstein v. United States,” which was the case about software being allowed to protected under 1st amendment and overturning the exportation ban of powerful cryptography in 1999. Even the government has acknowledged that the source code as a speech.

There are programs that are not protected under the 1st amendment, such as DeCSS and programs. It is true that copyright and patents are also important factors to consider on the behalf of economy. But after reading the article, I think that we are limiting ourselves with the improvement of new tech generation. Not only in software programmers, but freedom is important factor in science, design, art, music, etc. Freedom, is the one source that can give limitless of imaginations which could create anything.

Reading Response : Clay Shirky / Ethan Zuckerman

As we all know, social media have become one of the most important sources to communicate and socialize throughout the global. It has grew with rapid speed that in few minutes or even seconds, people around the world could be informed about different types of news. There are people who think social media, such as Facebook, Google, twitter, me2day, etc. is substandard but after reading both articles, I strongly support the social media. People should have right to express their thoughts, and with the social media it became possible. Society has been able to post freely about their thoughts and news to communicate and respond with others in rapid speed. Until it has been developed, it was unable for society to interact within such a short time. Of course there is always a space for the new development and compositions, but it is true that social media, allowed us to share various of information within groups, friends, or even to people who are not familiar with the information. There some example that indicates the strength of social media. For example, in the article there was a Hao Wu who has been arrested and the author as well as his sister Nina used social network such as blog to advocate on behalf of Hao Wu and spread the news to as much people as possible. Also, in Korea, recently many people record some situation about someone who hurts older people, a man who molests a woman on the subway, someone who steal money, and so on. And then upload the video on their blog and share it with many people. As a result, many people have been arrested through the social media. So, I think social media has a direct influence on our society.

Reading Response : Steve Kurtz

As we all know, the United States of America represents the country of freedom. When United States of America became independent, Bill of rights was established by our ancestors. It was created to protect the freedom of people. But after reading the “Interview with Steve Kurtz” by Melanie Crean, I had to wonder if we really have freedom in U.S. and government give people right direction. Steve Kurtz, the bio artist was once arrested due to his artwork without any crime or civil complaints. There were lots of cases similar to his case about artist getting arrested for expressing their own work. I think artist or designer’s best works are accomplished through the expressing imaginations. They always need to have freedom of their expression, feeling, thought, and so on. If they have limited freedom of expression, how will they create their own work? It is impossible to create a masterpiece if they worry about being arrested or find for their expression. As I mentioned above, United States of America is supposed to be country of freedom. I think it is very corrupted action for government to limit the freedom of people.